Fairbanks, G. (1960; Ch 10; Rhythm)

August 6, 2019

 

 CRITIQUE OF UNSUPPORTED PROCEDURAL DESCRIPTIONS

(also known as Expert Opinion)

NOTE:  Scroll down about two-thirds of the page to read the summary of the intervention.

KEY
C =  clinician

NA = not applicable

P =  patient or participant

pmh =  Patricia Hargrove, blog developer

SLP = speech-language pathologist

WPM =  words per minute

Source:   Fairbanks, G. (1960. Ch. 10, Rhythm)  Voice and articulation drillbook.  New York: Harper & Row.  (pp. 118-121)

 

Reviewer(s):  pmh

 

Date: July 31, 2019

 

Overall Assigned Grade (because there are no supporting data, the highest grade will be F)  The Assigned Overall Grade reflects the quality of the evidence supporting the intervention and does not represent a judgment regarding the quality of the intervention.

 

Level of Evidence:  F = Expert Opinion, no supporting evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention although the author may provide secondary evidence supporting components of the intervention.

 

Take Away: This chapter of Fairbanks (1960) is concerned with the production of Timing. Although Fairbanks notes that rate, rhythm, phrasing, and during comprise Timing, he only focuses on Rate and Rhythm in Chapter 10. This review is concerned with Rhythm Intervention. Fairbanks, however, reminds readers that prosodic features overlap with one another.

 

 

  1. Was there a review of the literature supporting components of the intervention?No

 

  1. Were the specific procedures/components of the intervention tied to the reviewed literature?No

 

  1. Was the intervention based on clinically sound clinical procedures? Yes

 

  1. Did the author(s) provide a rationale for components of the intervention? Variable

 

  1. Description of outcome measures:
  • Are outcome measures suggested? Yes
  • Outcome: To produce successive stressed-unstressed patterns in connected speech

 

  1. Was generalization addressed? No

 

  1. Was maintenance addressed? No

 

SUMMARY OF INTERVENTION

 

 

PURPOSE: To improve production of speech rhythm and timing (Tempo)

 

POPULATION:  Adults

 

MODALITY TARGETED: production

 

ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED (do not list the specific outcomes here):  rhythm, timing (Tempo)

 

ADMINISTRATOR:  The book is written so that a lay person could use it as a self-help book. Historically, I know of many speech-language pathologists who have used the techniques and the materials in their therapy sessions.

 

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

 

  • Fairbanks (1960) defines rhythm as a recurring pattern of vocal changes. Although one reason for the changes is linked to respiration, the speech features that contribute are

–  articulatory pauses

–  vowel-consonant pairings

–  stressing and unstressing

–  modifications of

∞  rate

∞  pitch

∞  intensity

 

  • The author defined terms such as jerky and patterned/monotones and he noted that many features are associated with rhythm. In Chapter 10, however, Fairbanks focuses on the recurrence of stresses as a marker of rhythm.

 

  • Fairbanks (1960, Ch 8, pp. 118-119) provided four poems which C should use to direct P to read silently and then to read aloud. Following the reading of each poem, C and P discuss its stressed-unstressed patterns.

 

  • Fairbanks provides a passage (Fairbanks, 1960, pp. 119-120) describing the rhythm in the four poems. C directs P to read the passage aloud and then C and P discuss the content.

 

  • P reads the 4 poems from pages 118-119 again but this time with exaggerated rhythm. P and, perhaps C discuss how the exaggerated rhythm, noting the mismatches with the stressed-unstressed patterns.

 

  • C reformulates the poems as prose (i.e., prose poem) by maintaining the words but modifying punctuation and capitalization. C instructs P to read the prose poems with little poetic rhythm. C and P discuss P’s performance.

 

  • P rereads the prose poems with a moderate (i.e., not exaggerated) rhythm. C and P discuss P’s performance.

 

  • P reviews the poems and identifies three poems with a similar rhythm.

 

  • P sings the song “America” (My country tis of thee.) C rewrites the first stanza of “America” as prose. C then reads aloud the first stanza with maximum rhythm. C and P discuss P’s performance.

 

  • C selects a popular song and writes it on paper. P then reads the words of the song aloud with normal rhythm, then with maximum rhythm, and finally with little or no rhythm.

 

  • Fairbanks (1960, Ch. 10, p. 121) provided a list of short phrases aloud.

–  C reads the phrases aloud attempting to produce stressed-unstressed patterns with similar duration but with clear contrasts between the stressed and unstressed syllables.

–  Fairbanks recommends speakers stress about one-third of the syllables.

 

  • P rereads the paragraph describing the rhythm in the four poems (Fairbanks, 1960, pp. 119-120). P identifies the rhythmic patterns within the paragraph.

 

  • P opens a book at random and identify rhythm of the sentences. P then tries to identify rhythmic periods (3 or more successive repetitions of a stressed-unstressed pattern.)

 

 


Fairbanks (1960; Ch.10; Rate)

July 30, 2019

 

 CRITIQUE OF UNSUPPORTED PROCEDURAL DESCRIPTIONS

(also known as Expert Opinion)

NOTE:  Scroll about two-thirds of the way down the page to read a summary of the intervention.

KEY

C =  clinician

NA = not applicable

P =  patient or participant

pmh =  Patricia Hargrove, blog developer

SLP = speech-language pathologist

WPM =  words per minute 

Source:   Fairbanks, G. (1960. Ch. 10, Rate)  Voice and articulation drillbook.  New York: Harper & Row.  (pp. 113-118)

Reviewer(s):  pmh

Date: July 24, 2019

Overall Assigned Grade (because there are no supporting data, the highest grade will be F)  The Assigned Overall Grade reflects the quality of the evidence supporting the intervention and does not represent a judgment regarding the quality of the intervention.

Level of Evidence:  F = Expert Opinion, no supporting evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention although the author may provide secondary evidence supporting components of the intervention.

Take Away: This chapter of Fairbanks (1960) is concerned with the production of Timing (Tempo). Although Fairbanks notes that rate, rhythm, phrasing, and duration comprise timing, he only focuses on Rate and Rhythm in Chapter 10. This review is concerned  only with Rate Intervention. Fairbanks also reminds readers that prosodic features overlap with one another.   

  1. Was there a review of the literature supporting components of the intervention?  No

  

  1. Were the specific procedures/components of the intervention tied to the reviewed literature?  Not Applicable (NA)

  

  1. Was the intervention based on clinically sound clinical procedures?  Yes

 

  1. Did the author provide a rationale for components of the intervention? Variable

 

  1. Description of outcome measures:
  • Are outcome measures suggested? Yes

 Outcome #1: Improved words per minute (WPM)

     – Outcome #2: Modification of duration of words (articulation time)

     – Outcome #3: Production of rate appropriate to the communicative context

 

  1. Was generalization addressed? No

 

  1. Was maintenance addressed?

 

SUMMARY OF INTERVENTION

 

PURPOSE: To improve speaking rate

POPULATION:  Adults

MODALITY TARGETED: Production

 ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED:  Rate, duration of words, timing (tempo) use of rate appropriate to the communicative context

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED: Pragmatics (appropriateness to context)

ADMINISTRATOR:  The book is written so that a lay person could use it as a self-help book. Historically, I know of many speech-language pathologists who have used the techniques and the materials in their therapy sessions.    

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

  • Chapter 10 begins with a description of strategies for measuring rate including a data-based rating scale. Fairbanks also differentiated articulation time and pause time in the measurement of time.

TREATMENT PROCEDURES

  • The Participant/Patient (P) reads aloud a 1000 work passage with every 165 section of words marked off. The reading of the passage at 165 wpm is a typical rate for speakers of English and should take about 6 minutes.

–  As P reads aloud the passage, the clinician (C) signals the time at one minute intervals to provide guidance to P.  (P should try to keep the speaking rate at 165 wpm.)

  • Fairbanks notes that speaking can be modified by increasing or decreasing articulation time (word duration) or pause time. Because modifying articulation time is more difficult than modifying pause time, Fairbanks recommends focusing first on articulation time.
  • The C provides a wordlist from Fairbanks (p. 116) and directs P to

    –  Read the words on the list with very short durations.

–  Read the words on the list with average durations.

–  Read the words on the list with long durations.

–  Read each word with a very short duration, an average duration, and then a long duration before proceeding to the next word on the list.

–  Complete the above task with letters of the alphabet.

–  Complete the above task with numbers 1 through 25.

  • CONTEXTUAL VARIATION:

–  P reads a factual passage of 75-100 words for a context described by C that would be appropriate for the production of slow speaking rate (e.g., P is talking to a huge audience or to an audience that is outside). P and/or C calculate P’s speaking rate.

–  P reads a factual passage of 75-100 words for a context described by C that would be appropriate for the production of faster speaking rate (e.g., P is talking to a group of 3 to 5 people within a few feet). P and/or C calculate P’s speaking rate.

–  P reads a factual passage of 75-100 words for a context described by C that would be appropriate for the production of slow speaking rate (e.g., P trying to explain a complicated, novel concept). P and/or C calculate P’s speaking rate.

–  P reads a factual passage of 75-100 words for a context described by C that would be appropriate for the production of a faster speaking rate (e.g., P is talking to a small group of peers and reviewing a concept that is known to the listeners). P and/or C calculate P’s speaking rate.

– C and P compare and contrast C’s production of rate in the different contexts.

–  C provides P with 2 passages:

∞  One passage would likely to be read fast by good readers.

∞  One passage would likely to be read slowly by good readers.

–  C reads both of the above passages aloud with special emphasis on speaking rate.  C and P calculate the rates and discuss C’s performance.

–  The P uses the above procedures while reading poetry instead of a factual passage.

  • EMOTIONAL STATE

–  Fairbanks (1960, p. 117) provided a passage (“There is no other answer. You’ve asked me that question a thousand times and my reply has always been the same. It will always be the same.”)  to be read with each of the emotional states listed below. The times listed in parentheses are norms provided by Fairbanks.

∞ Contempt (12-14 seconds)

∞ Grief (12- 14 seconds)

∞ Anger (6- 8 seconds)

∞ Fear (6 –  8 seconds)

∞ Indifference (6 – 8 seconds)

∞ Amusement

∞ Astonishment

∞ Doubt

∞ Elation

∞ Embarrassment

∞ Jealousy

∞ Love

– NOTE:  P is encouraged to use other aspects of prosody as well as rate when producing the passage with the different emotions.

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