CRITIQUE OF UNSUPPORTED PROCEDURAL DESCRIPTIONS
(also known as Expert Opinion)
NOTE: Scroll down about two-thirds of the page to read the summary of the intervention.
C = clinician
NA = not applicable
P = patient or participant
Pitch inflection = pitch modulation within an utterance
Pitch variability = pitch range
pmh = Patricia Hargrove, blog developer
SLP = speech-language pathologist
WPM = words per minute
Source: Fairbanks, G. (1960. Ch. 11, Pitch Level) Voice and articulation drillbook. New York: Harper & Row. (pp. 122-129)
Date: Aug 27, 2019
Overall Assigned Grade (because there are no supporting data, the highest grade will be F) The Assigned Overall Grade reflects the quality of the evidence supporting the intervention and does not represent a judgment regarding the quality of the intervention.
Level of Evidence: F = Expert Opinion, no supporting evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention although the author may provide secondary evidence supporting components of the intervention.
Take Away: This chapter of Fairbanks (1960) is concerned with the production of Pitch. Fairbanks notes that pitch level, pitch variability (pitch range), and inflection (pitch modulation within an utterance) and stress comprise pitch; this review, however, is only concerned with Pitch Level. Several strategies for treating pitch level are presented in this part of Chapter 11.
- Was there a review of the literature supporting components of the intervention?No
- Were the specific procedures/components of the intervention tied to the reviewed literature?No
- Was the intervention based on clinically sound clinical procedures? Yes
- Did the author(s) provide a rationale for components of the intervention? Variable
- Description of outcome measures:
- Are outcome measures suggested? Yes
- Outcome: To produce speech using an appropriate pitch level
- Was generalization addressed? No
- Was maintenance addressed? No
SUMMARY OF INTERVENTION
PURPOSE: To produce speech using an appropriate pitch level
MODALITY TARGETED: production
ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED: pitch level, pitch variability
ADMINISTRATOR: The book is written so that a lay person could use it as a self-help book. Historically, I know of many speech-language pathologists who have used the techniques and the materials in their therapy sessions.
- Fairbanks (1960, Ch 11, Pitch Level) defines several terms (e.g., pitch level, group pitch level, natural level, habitual level, highest pitch, expected pitch levels for young men and women) used in this section of the chapter. Fairbanks also provides directions for identifying natural pitch level and habitual level. This part of Chapter 11 also provides the script for the extended version of the iconic “Rainbow Passage.”
- TheClinician (C) and the Participant/Patient (P) compares P’s habitual and natural pitch levels. If they differ, the focus of treatment should be the natural pitch.
– P hums using the natural pitch then chants lines from “The Rainbow Passage” gradually adding pitch inflections.
– P and C monitor vocalizations for improved variability, loudness, and voice quality thus identifying the ‘best’ pitch level.
- P and C verify the best (or natural) pitch level by
– singing sustained vowels multiple (10 -12) times and
– P varies the duration and the loudness of the vowels.
- P practices producing the best pitch level on cue.
- P chants words from a word list (Fairbanks, 1960, Chapter 11, p. 128, #8) using the best pitch level.
- P chants sentence from a sentence list (Fairbanks, 1960, Chapter 11, p. 128, #9) using the best pitch level.
- P speaks words from the word list (Fairbanks, 1960, Chapter 11, p. 128, #8) using the best pitch level adding a downward pitch inflection.
- P chants sentence from the sentence list (Fairbanks, 1960, Chapter 11, p. 128, #9) with the dominant pitch level being the ‘best’ pitch. P also included natural variability in the production of the sentences.
- P chant part of “The Rainbow Passage.”
– P chants the passage until reaching the portion of the script marked by vertical lines (||) found on p. 127, paragraph 2, line 4.)
– At this point, P continues to chant but increases variability until reaching the second set of vertical lines found on p. 127, paragraph 2, line 17.)
– P continues to chant but reduces variability to mainly produce the ‘best’ level.
– P and C monitor the P’s performance.
- P reads aloud the “Amplified Passage” (Fairbanks, 1960, Chapter 10, p. 114) using a rate of 160 – 170 words per minute (WPM) and the ‘best’ pitch level.
- Fairbanks (1960, Chapter 11, #14) provides a set of 3 sentences for P to read aloud multiple times. Each time P reads the sentences, a different emotion should be expressed using pitch level and rate changes.
– anger and fear should be produced with a high pitch level
– contempt, grief, and indifference should be produced with a low pitch level
– HINT: The two sets of emotions should be separated by at least 2 octaves.