Vaiouli & Andrews (2018)

SECONDARY REVIEW CRITIQUE

KEY:

ASD =  Autism Spectrum Disorder

C =  clinician

f =  female

m =  male

MT =  music therapy

NA =  not applicable

P =  patient or participant

pmh =  Patricia Hargrove, blog developer

SLP =  speech-language pathologist

SR =  Systematic Review

 

Source:  Vaiouli, P., & Andreou, G. (2018). Communication and language of young children with autism: A review of the research in music. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 39(2), 323-329.

Reviewer(s):  pmh

Date:  February 10, 2019

Overall Assigned Grade: B-    The highest possible grade based on the level of evidence is B.  The overall grade should be interpreted as a rating of the quality of the evidence supporting the investigation’s findings. It is not a judgment about the quality or effectiveness of the music therapy. 

Level of Evidence:  B

Take Away:  The purpose of this review was to investigate the use of music therapy (MT) for improving communication development of children (ages 0 to 8 years) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The investigators identified 3 uses of music in the improvement of speech, language, and communication targets:  (1) to facilitate preverbal communication by using music to engage the children, (2) to improve receptive language, and (3) to improve expressive language (i.e., the production of speech and language.)

 

What type of secondary review?  Narrative Systematic Review

 

  1. Were the results valid?  Yes
  • Was the review based on a clinically sound clinical question?
  • Did the reviewers clearly describe reasonable criteria for inclusion and exclusion of literature in the review (i.e., sources)?
  • The authors of the secondary research noted that they reviewed the following resource:internet based databases
  • Did the sources involve only English language publications?Yes
  • Did the sources include unpublished studies? No
  • Was the time frame for the publication of the sources sufficient?
  • Did the authors of the secondary research identify the level of evidence of the sources? No, but they identified the design of the investigations.        
  • Did the authors of the secondary research describe procedures used to evaluate the validity of each of the sources?Yes
  • Was there evidence that a specific, predetermined strategy was used to evaluate the sources?
  • Did the authors of the secondary research or review teams rate the sources independently? Unclear
  • Were interrater reliability data provided?No
  • If there were no interrater reliability data, was an alternate means to insure reliability described? No
  • Were assessments of sources sufficiently reliable?Unclear
  • Was the information provided sufficient for the reader to undertake a replication?Yes
  • Did the sources that were evaluated involve a sufficient number of participants? Yes(on the average)
  • Were there a sufficient number of sources?No

 

  1. Description of outcome measures:

 

  • The investigation was not concerned about outcomes, rather the focus was on describing the nature of MT associated with language and communication development for children with ASD.

 

  1. Description of results:
  • What measures were used to represent the magnitude of the treatment/effect size? No measure of the magnitude of the treatment effect/effect size were reported because the focus of the investigation was not treatment effectiveness.
  • Summary overall findings of the secondary research: The investigators described 3 uses of music:

–  To facilitate preverbal communication by using music to engage the children

–  To improve receptive language

–  To improve expressive language (i.e., the production of speech and

language

  • Were the results precise? Not Applicable (NA)
  • Were the results of individual studies clearly displayed/presented?Yes
  • Were the findings reasonable in view of the current literature? Yes

                                                                                                                   

  1. Were maintenance data reported?NA

 

  1. Were generalization data reported?NA

 

SUMMARY OF INTERVENTION

 

Population:  Autism Spectrum Disorder; Children

Purpose:  To identify how music is used when targeting speech, language, and communication improvement in children with ASD

Nonprosodic Targets:  preverbal communication, receptive language, expressive language (speech and language production)

Aspects of Prosody Used in Treatment of Nonprosodic Targets: music (pitch rhythm, loudness, duration)

 

  • The investigators identified 9 sources that met inclusion and exclusion criteria.

 

  • From the 9 sources, the investigators described 3 uses of music:

–  To facilitate preverbal communication by using music to engage the children

–  To improve receptive language

–  To improve expressive language (i.e., the production of speech and

language

 

TO FACILITATE PREVERBAL COMMUNICATION BY USING MUSIC TO ENGAGE THE CHILDREN

 

  • Number of studies: 2
  • Total Number of Participants (Ps):4
  • Music Techniques:  Songs, familiar melodies, sung directives

 

TO IMPROVE RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE

 

  • Number of studies: 3
  • Total Number of Ps:35
  • Music Techniques:  Songs and precomposed sngs

 

TO IMPROVE EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE (I.E., THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH AND  LANGUAGE

 

  • Number of studies: 4
  • Total Number of Ps:90
  • Music Techniques:  Songs, familiar melodies, singing, tapping

 

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