Yenkimaleki (2017)

November 26, 2018

 EBP THERAPY ANALYSIS

Treatment Groups 

Note: Scroll about two-thirds of the way down the page to read the summary of the procedures.

Key:

C = Clinician

EBP = evidence-based practice

NA = not applicable

P = Patient or Participant

pmh =  Patricia  Hargrove, blog developer

SLP = speech–language pathologist

 

 

SOURCE: Yenkimaleki, M. (2017). Developing listening comprehension skills by interpreter trainees through prosody teaching: Does methodology make a difference.  Educational Research Review, 3 (2), 26-42DOI: 10.20319/pijss.2017.32.2642

 

REVIEWER(S): pmh

 

DATE: October 25, 2018

 

ASSIGNED GRADE FOR OVERALL QUALITY:  B The highest possible grade based on this this design was  A. The Assigned Grade for Overall Quality is not a judgment about the worth of the intervention; it merely rates the quality of the evidence supporting the intervention.

 

TAKE AWAY: The results of this investigation that compared a control intervention and two experimental interventions (implicit and explicit instruction in prosody awareness) revealed that the explicit intervention yielded significantly higher scores on tests of the comprehension of English than either the implicit or control interventions for students in Iran who were training to be Farsi-English interpreters.

 

 

  1. What type of evidence was identified? Prospective, Randomized Group Design with Controls

                                                                                                          

  • What was the level of support associated with the type of evidence?

Level = A

 

                                                                                                           

  1. Group membership determination:

                                                                                                           

  • Were participants (Ps) randomly assigned to groups? Yes. It was referred to as random by the investigator. However, there was matching/blocking for certain P characteristics.

 

 

  1. Was administration of intervention status concealed?

                                                                                                           

  • from participants? No
  • from clinicians?No
  • from analyzers?No

                                                                    

 

  1. Were the groups adequately described? Yes

 

–  How many  Ps were involved in the study?

  • total # of Ps: 18 
  • # of groups:3
  • List names of groups and the # of participants in each group:

     –  Control Group  (Foil intervention); n = 6

–  Implicit Group (Comparison intervention); n = 6

–  Explicit Group (Experimental intervention); n = 6

           

–  CONTROLLED P CHARACTERISTICS

  • age:age range of all ages 18-27 years
  • gender:each group 6m and 6f
  • native language: all Ps spoke Farsi
  • language learning to translate:English (for all Ps_
  • nationality: Iranian
  • Social Economic Status:
  • educational level of all groups of Ps:undergraduate students, majoring in translation and interpreting; in last year of studies at University of Applied Sciences in Iran

 

–  DESCRIBED P CHARACTERISTICS

 

  • Listening Component Score on TOEFL proficiency test:

     –  Control Group =  mean – 56.4

     –  Implicit Intervention =  mean –  56.5

     –  Explicit Intervention =  mean –  56.5

  • Writing Component Score on TOEFL proficiency test:

     –  Control Group =  mean – 56.7

     –  Implicit Intervention =  mean – 57.1

     –  Explicit Intervention =  mean – 56.2

  • Reading Component Score on TOEFL proficiency test:

     –  Control Group =  mean – 56.0

     –  Implicit Intervention =  mean – 54.8

     –  Explicit Intervention =  mean –  56.0

  • Overall Score on TOEFL proficiency test:

     –  Control Group =  mean –  563.5

     –  Implicit Intervention =  mean – 561.6

     –  Explicit Intervention =  mean – 562.7

 

–   Were the groups similar before intervention began? Yes

                                                         

–  Were the communication problems adequately described?  Not Applicable, (NA), the Ps did not have impairments. They were learning to be Farsi-English interpreters.

 

 

  1. Was membership in groups maintained throughout the study?

                                                                                                             

  • Did each of the groups maintain at least 80% of their original members?Yes
  • Were data from outliers removed from the study? No 

 

 

  1. Were the groups controlled acceptably?  Yes
  • Was there a no intervention group?No   
  • Was there a foil intervention group? Yes
  • Was there a comparison group?Yes
  • Was the time involved in the foil/comparison and the target groups constant? Yes

 

 

  1. Was the outcome measure appropriate and meaningful? Yes

 

  • OUTCOME: Overall quality of Listening Comprehension on Longman’s TOEFL comprehension module

 

–  The outcome measures was subjective.

–  The outcome measure was NOT objective.

                                         

 

  1. Were reliability measures provided?
  • Interobserver for analyzers?No 
  • Intraobserver for analyzers?No 
  • Treatment fidelity for teachers?No

 

 

  1. What were the results of the statistical (inferential) testing and/or the description of the results?

 

  • What level of significance was required to claim significance? p = 0.05

 

TREATMENT AND FOIL/COMPARISON GROUP ANALYSES

 

  • OUTCOME: Overall quality of Listening Comprehension on Longman’s TOEFL comprehension module

–  The gain in performance from preintervention to postintervention was

∞  NOT significant for control versus implicit intervention

∞  was significantly different for

  • explicit versus control
  • explicit versus implicit

 

  • What was the statistical test used to determine significance?ANOVA

 

  • Were confidence interval (CI) provided?No

 

 

  1. What is the clinical significanceNA

 

 

  1. Were maintenance data reported? No

 

  1. Were generalization data reported?No

 

 

  1. Describe briefly the experimental design of the investigation.

 

  • Eighteen Farsi speaking Iranian University students learning to interpret English were sorted into 3 groups (control, implicit intervention, explicit intervention.) The groups were controlled for test performance on measure of English, gender, and educational level.

 

  • The Ps were administered pre and post intervention tests of English listening comprehension before and after being exposed to the interventions which were administered at similar dosage rates.

 

 

ASSIGNED OVERALL GRADE FOR QUALITY OF EXTERNAL EVIDENCE:  B

 

 

SUMMARY OF INTERVENTION

 

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of implicit versus explicit teaching of  prosody awareness on the listening comprehension of English Language Learners.

 

POPULATION: English Language Learners; Adults

 

MODALITY TARGETED: comprehension

 

ELEMENTS OF PROSODY USED AS INTERVENTION:  Not clear. This information may be available in references provided by the investigator.

 

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED:  comprehension of spoken English

 

DOSAGE: Ps from all 3 groups received a total of 400 minutes of treatment. All Ps participated in all treatment sessions

 

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

 

  • There were 3 treatment groups:

– Control  (received a placebo intervention)

– Experimental: Implicit intervention

– Experimental:  Explicit intervention

 

  • The content of the intervention was awareness of prosody

 

CONTROL INTERVENTION

  • Dosage = 400 minutes

–  of “authentic audio tracks” (p. 30)  and

– completed listening comprehension exercises

  • Instructor explained procedures and provided feedback.

 

EXPLICIT INTERVENTION

  • Part 1: Dosage = 200 minutes

– of “authentic audio tracks” (p. 30) and

– completed listening comprehension exercises

  • Instructor explained procedures and provided feedback.

 

  • Part 2: Dosage = 200 minutes

–  Instructor provided explicit instruction (theoretical explanations regarding English prosody.)

– Ps completed exercises based on the instruction.

 

IMPLICIT INTERVENTION

  • Part 1:Dosage = 200 minutes

– of “authentic audio tracks” (p. 30) and

– completed listening comprehension exercises

  • Instructor explained procedures and provided feedback.

 

  • Part 2: Dosage = 200 minutes

– Ps were provided with implicit instruction via “authentic audios.”

– Ps completed exercises based on the authentic audios

– Recasts (rewording but maintaining meaning) were used (by the instructor?) immediately after the Ps errors

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

 

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