Stoeckel (2016)

CRITIQUE OF UNSUPPORTED PROCEDURAL DESCRIPTIONS

(also known as Expert Opinion)

NOTE:  Scroll ½ way down this post to access the summaries for the 5 activities.

KEY

C =  clinician

CAS = Childhood Apraxia of Speech

NA = not applicable

P =  patient or participant

pmh =  Patricia Hargrove, blog developer

SLP = speech-language pathologist

Source:  Stoeckel, R. (2016.)  5 fun ways to mix prosody into CAS therapy.  Retrieved from http://www.medbridgeeducation.com/blog/2016/10/5-fun-ways-to-mix-prosody-into-cas-therapy/ 

Reviewer(s):  pmh

Date:  August 14, 2018

Overall Assigned Grade (because there are no supporting data, the highest grade will be F)

Level of Evidence:  F = Expert Opinion, no supporting evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention although the author may provide secondary evidence supporting components of the intervention. The Level of Evidence grade should not be construed as a judgment of the quality of the recommended activities. It is only concerned with the nature of the evidence supporting the author’s recommendation.

 

Take Away:  This blog post briefly describes activities that speech language pathologists (SLPs) can use to integrate prosody into interventions for children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS.) 

  1. Was there a review of the literature supporting components of the intervention?No, the author did not provide a review of the literature supporting the recommended activities but did provide a brief review of a rationale for integrating prosody activities into intervention for children with CAS.

 

  1. Were the specific procedures/components of the intervention tied to the reviewed literature? No, the author did not provide a review of the literature supporting the recommended activities but did provide a brief review of a rationale for integrating prosody into intervention for children with CAS.

 

  1. Was the intervention based on clinically sound clinical procedures? Yes

 

  1. Did the author(s) provide a rationale for components of the intervention? No

 

  1. Description of outcome measures:

 

  • Are outcome measures suggested? No

 

  1. Was generalization addressed? No

 

  1. Was maintenance addressed? No

 

SUMMARY OF INTERVENTION

NOTE:  The author recommended 5 activities for integrating prosody into treatment of children with CAS. The 5 activities are

–  Songs and Fingerplays

–  Toys that Provide Auditory Feedback

–  Action Figures, Dolls, and Stuffed Animals

–  Board Games

–  Books

Songs and Fingerplays

POPULATION:  Childhood Apraxia of Speech; Children

MODALITY TARGETED: production 

ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED:  stress, music

ELEMENTS OF PROSODY USED AS INTERVENTION:  duration, loudness, pitch

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED: production of word or phrase

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

  • The clinician (C) can focus on either one aspect of prosody or multiple aspects of prosody depending on the age of the child.
  • For example, C may encourage the participant (P) to use duration alone to mark stress or to use pitch, loudness, and duration.
  • This activity can also be used to focus on target words/phrases to be produced in the songs.

 

 Toys that Provide Auditory Feedback

POPULATION:  Childhood Apraxia of Speech; Children 

MODALITY TARGETED: production 

ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED:  loudness, music

ELEMENTS OF PROSODY USED AS INTERVENTION:  rhythm

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED: production of syllables

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

  • Toys with embedded microphones can facilitate the production of different aspects of prosody.
  • The use of drums can encourage the production of loudness or of targeted syllables.

 

Action Figures, Dolls, and Stuffed Animals

POPULATION:  Childhood Apraxia of Speech; Children

MODALITY TARGETED: production 

ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED: pitch, loudness

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED: voice quality; words/phrases

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

  • Role playing with action figures, dolls, and stuffed (plush) animals can focus on prosody by encouraging P to use different speaking styles for different characters and to signal different meanings.
  • C encourages target words/phrases production as part of the play.

 

Board Games

POPULATION:  Childhood Apraxia of Speech; Children 

MODALITY TARGETED: production

ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED:  rate, contrastive stress

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED: voice quality 

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

  • Before taking a turn P imitates sentences/phrases modeled by C with

– different voice qualities or

– different rates

  • C asks P questions to elicit contrastive such as

– Is it YOUR turn or MY turn?  (p. 2)

– Does your character have BLUE eyes? (p. 2.)

Books

POPULATION:  Childhood Apraxia of Speech; Children 

MODALITY TARGETED: production 

ELEMENTS/FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY TARGETED:  affective prosody

OTHER ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE/COMMUNICATION TARGETED: literacy 

MAJOR COMPONENTS:

EMERGING READERS:

  • When reading with the P, C has him/her complete a sentence that signals

– an emotion,

– emphasis,

–  a character voice (p. 2.)

 

READER:

  • C identifies passages that could benefit with modifications of prosody to enhance interest.
  • C provides reading material a little below P’s reading level when P is practicing prosodic modifications during reading aloud activities.

 

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