Kargas et al. (2016)

ANALYSIS

Comparison Research

NOTES: The focus of the investigation is not on intervention. Accordingly, no summary of intervention is included in the review.

KEY:

 ADOS = Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale

ASD = autism spectrum disorders

eta =   partial eta squared

f = female

m = male

MLU = mean length of utterance

NA = Not Applicable

P = participant or patient

pmh = Patricia Hargrove, blog developer

SLP = speech-language pathologist

TD = typically developing

 

 

SOURCE: Kargas, N., López, B., Morris, P., & Reddy, V. (2016). Relations among detection of syllable stress, speech abnormalities, and communicative ability in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59, 206-215.

 

REVIEWER(S): pmh

 

DATE: August 4, 2016

 

ASSIGNED GRADE FOR OVERALL QUALITY: No grade assigned. This investigation is concerned with aspects of prosody in a clinical population. Nevertheless, it has application to the clinical practice.

 

TAKE AWAY: The investigators compared adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders to typical peers on a task tapping the perception of syllable stress (primary speech perception). The results revealed that adults with ASD have significantly lower scores on the Syllable Stress Perception Task compared to TD peers, although perception varied markedly within the ASD group. Also, within the ASD group, poor stress perception was associated with increased speech production (i.e., stress, intonation, rate) problems but not communication/language problems.

 

 

  1. What type of evidence was identified?
  • What was the type of design? Comparison Research — Prospective, Nonrandomized Group Design

 

  • What was the focus of the research? Clinically Related

                                                                                                           

  • What was the level of support associated with the type of evidence? Level = B

 

                                                                                                           

  1. Group membership determination:

                                                                                                           

  • If there were groups, were participants randomly assigned to groups? No
  • If there were groups and Ps were not randomly assigned to groups, were members of groups carefully matched? Yes

                                                                    

 

  1. Were experimental conditions concealed?

                                                                                                           

  • from participants? No

                                                                    

  • from administrators of experimental conditions? No

                                                                    

  • from analyzers/judges? Yes, the Ps responses were collected on the computer.

 

 

  1. Were the groups adequately described? Variable

 

– How many participants were involved in the study?

 

  • total # of Ps:  42
  • # of groups: 2
  • List names of groups and the number of Ps in each group:

     – Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) = 21

– Typically Developing (TD) = 21

  • Did all groups maintain membership throughout the investigation? Yes, there was only one session

                                                                                

– CONTROLLED CHARACTERISTICS                                                  

  • age: adults
  • gender: 18m; 3f in each group
  • diagnosis of Ps with ASD: Asperger’s syndrome using Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (ADOS)
  • psychiatric or developmental diagnosis of the TD group: Self report of no diagnosis of either of these problems.
  • Hearing: within normal limits based on audiometric testing

 

== DESCRIBED CHARACTERISTICS

  • age:

     – ASD = mean 30.3 years

     – TD = mean 29.5 years

  • gender:
  • cognitive skills:

     – ASD

  • mean Full range IQ = 109.5
  • mean Verbal IQ = 109.8
  • mean Performance IQ 107.2

     – TD

  • mean Full range IQ = 115.9
  • mean Verbal IQ = 113.9
  • mean Performance IQ = 114.2

 

– Were the groups similar? Yes

 

– Were the communication problems adequately described? No

 

 

  1. What were the different conditions for this research?

                                                                                                             

— Subject (Classification) Groups? Yes

  • Diagnosis (ASD, TD)

                                                               

— Experimental Conditions? Yes

  • performance of the Syllable Stress Perception Task (described below in item #9)

 

— Criterion/Descriptive Conditions? Yes

  • performance on Language and Communication Measure of the ADOS

 

 

  1. Were the groups controlled acceptably? Yes

 

 

  1. Was the dependent measure appropriate and meaningful? Yes

 

  • OUTCOME #1: The accuracy of responses on the Syllable Stress Perception Task

 

  • The dependent measure was NOT subjective.

 

  • The dependent measure WAS objective? Ps entered their responses into the computer

 

 

  1. Were reliability measures provided?

                                                                                                            

– Interobserver for analyzers? No _

 

Intraobserver for analyzers? No

 

– Treatment or test administration fidelity for investigators? No

 

 

  1. Description of design:

 

  • Testing for each Ps was accomplished during 3 hour individual sessions.
  • Prior to the Experimental Phase of the testing, an IQ test and the ADOS were administered.
  • The Experimental Phase included:

– tests were administered in a quiet room.

– practice with the Experimental Task.

– the administration of the Experimental Task — Syllable Stress Perception Task in which the P pressed a button via the computer indicating whether the words were same or different

  • The Syllable Stress Perception Task involved

– Ps individually listening to word pairs in which the same 4 syllable word was presented 2 times in one of the 4 following sets:

  • first syllable stressed for both versions (same)
  • first syllable stressed for 1 version, second syllable stressed for the other version (different)
  • second syllable stressed for both versions (same)
  • second syllable stressed for 1 version, first syllable stressed for the other version (different)

 

  • Statistical analyses controlled for overall IQ, Verbal IQ, and Performance IQ.

 

 

  1. What were the results of the statistical (inferential) testing?

 

  • OUTCOME #1: The accuracy of responses on the Syllable Stress Perception Task

– Ps with ASD performed significantly more poorly on the Syllable Stress Perception Task than the TD Ps. The response was stable irrespective of whether the stress was on the first or second syllable.

– Response bias for providing “Same” or “Different” response was similar for the Ps with ASD and the TD group.

– The investigators explored whether there were previously unrecognized subgroups within the 2 major groups (ASD, TD.) They determined that the ASD group had significantly more poor performers (2 standard deviations below the group mean) than the TD group (33% vs 10.5%)

 

  • What statistical tests were used to determine significance? t-test, ANOVA, Chi square

 

  • Were effect sizes provided? No, for the most part.

 

  • Were confidence interval (CI) provided? No

 

 

  1. Summary of correlational results:

 

  • OUTCOME #1: The accuracy of responses on the Syllable Stress Perception Task

– Correlation between accuracy and communication quality:

  • Significant correlation between syllable stress perception accuracy and Speech Abnormalities score on the ADOS (i.e., atypical production of rate, stress, intonation; higher scores signify more problems) — r = – 0.75
  • The correlation between syllable stress perception accuracy and language communication score on the ADOS was not significant

 

 

  1. Summary of descriptive results: Qualitative research NA

 

 

  1. Brief summary of clinically relevant results:
  • Adults with ASD have significantly lower scores on the Syllable Stress Perception Task compared to TD peers, although perception varied markedly within the ASD group.
  • Within the ASD group, poor stress perception was associated with and increased speech production (i.e., stress, intonation, rate) problems.

 

 

 

ASSIGNED GRADE FOR QUALITY OF EXTERNAL EVIDENCE: B

 

 

 

 

 

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