NATURE OF PROSODIC DISORDERS
AS = Asperger’s syndrome
NA = not applicable
P = participant or patient
pmh = Patricia Hargrove, blog developer
TYP = typically developing
WNL = within normal limits
SOURCE: Heikkinen, J., Jansson-Verkasalo, E., Toivanen, J., Kalervo, S., Väyrynen, E., Moilanen, I., & Seppänen, T. (2010). Perceptions of basic emotions from speech prosody in adolescents with Asperger’s syndrome. Logopedics Phonatrics Vovology, 35, 113-120
DATE: April 20, 2015
ASSIGNED GRADE FOR OVERALL QUALITY: B –
POPULATION: Asperger’s syndrome (AS); adolescents
PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of adolescents diagnosed with AS to perceive basic emotions from Finnish speech prosody
INSIGHTS ABOUT PROSODY:
- Finnish adolescents diagnosed with AS performed similarly to TYP peers on a task requiring them to discriminate which prosody signals basic emotion in a read passage.
- What type of evidence was identified? Prospective, Nonrandomized Group Comparison Design
- Group membership determination:
- If there were groups were members of groups matched? Yes
- The matching strategy involved matching on chronological age.
- Was participants’ communication status concealed?
- from participants? No
- from assessment administrators? No
- from data analyzers? No
- Were the groups/participants adequately described? Yes
– How many participants were involved in the study?
- total # of participants: 27
- was group membership maintained throughout the experiment? Yes
- # of groups: 2
- List names of groups: AS; typically developing peers (TYP)
- # of participants in each group: AS = 12; TYP = 15
– The following variables were described (except where listed as controlled):
- age: mean age 14.5 (AS); 14.3 (TYP)
- gender: 9m, 3f (AS); 8m, 7f [controlled variable]
- cognitive skills: only AS scores were reported:
– total IQ mean = 106
– total IQ range = 84 to 119
– verbal IQ mean = 107
– performance IQ mean = 105
- attention deficits: exclusion criteria
- language deficits: exclusion criteria
- learning problems: none reported (TYP)
- psychiatric diagnosis: exclusion criteria
- hearing: within normal limits (WNL)
- mental illness: none reported (TYP)
- first language: Finnish
- educational level of clients: primary school (TYP);
– Were the communication problems adequately described?
- disorder type: all AS Ps were diagnosed with AS.
- What were the different conditions for this research?
- Subject (Classification) Groups? Yes:
— Asperger’s syndrome group (AS)
— Typically developing group (TYP)
- Experimental Conditions? Yes:
— Actors read sentences representing different emotional states:
- Neutral (54 sentences)
- Sad (18 sentences)
- Happy (18 sentences)
- Angry (18 sentences)
– Criterion/Descriptive Conditions? No
- Were the groups controlled acceptably? Yes
- Were dependent measures appropriate and meaningful? Yes
– The dependent measures were
- Dependent Measure #1: Number of correct perceptions of neutral sentences
- Dependent Measure #2: Number of correct perceptions of sad sentences
- Dependent Measure #3: Number of correct perceptions of angry sentences
- Dependent Measure #4: Number of correct perceptions of happy sentences
– All the dependent measures were subjective.
– None of the dependent/ outcome measures were objective.
- Were reliability measures provided?
- Interobserver for analyzers? No
- Intraobserver for analyzers? No
- Procedural fidelity for investigators? No
- Description of design:
- Professional actors read the same passage several times in Finnish. Different emotions were depicted in the readings: neutral, sad, angry, and happy.
- Ps listened to the passage using headphones and signaled their interpretation of the emotion represented in the passage by pressing a button above pictures of faces representing neutral, sad, angry, and happy emotions. The pictures were accompanied by printed words labeling the emotion represented by the face.
- The Ps listened to a total of 108 sentences each (54 neutral, 18 sad, 18 angry, and 18 happy.)
- The experimental task lasted 45 minutes.
- The investigators analyzed the results using a 2 x 4 ANOVA (group x emotions) and correlations (age and number of correct responses)
- What were the results of the inferential statistical testing?
- There was no significant between AS and TYP groups for average comprehension scores.
- What was the statistical test used to determine significance? ANOVA
- Were effect sizes provided? No
- Were confidence interval (CI) provided? No
- What were the results of the correlational statistical testing?
- Correlations between discrimination scores and age were not significant.
- The statistical test used to determine correlation was two- tailed bivariate correlation coefficient.
- What were the results of the descriptive analysis
- The investigators provided a confusion index.
– Rarely confused with other emotions: happy and sad
– Angry confused with: neutral, sad and less frequently happy
– Neutral was confused with: sad