Jalled et al. (2000)



NOTE: The summary of the intervention procedures can be viewed by scrolling about two-thirds of the way down this page.



AMRT = Arabic Melodic and Rhythmic Therapy, an Arabic adaptation of Melodic and Rhythmic Therapy

C = clinician

MIT = Melodic Intonation Therapy

MRT = Melodic and Rhythmic Therapy, a French adaptation of MIT

P = patient or participant

pmh = Patricia Hargrove, blog developer

SLP = speech-language pathologist or equivalent


Source: Jalled, F., Skik, H., & Mrabet, A. (2000). Arabic melodic and rhythmic therapy: A method of severe aphasia therapy. Neurosciences, 5 (2), 91- 93.


Reviewer(s):  pmh


Date: July 31, 2014


Level of Evidence: F = Expert Opinion, no supporting evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention although the author may provide secondary evidence supporting components of the intervention.


Take Away: The authors describe a Tunisian Arabic adaptation (AMRT) of Melodic and Rhythmic Therapy (MRT) which is a French adaptation of Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). The authors provided the linguistic basis of the modifications, procedures for the AMRT, and a summary of some research supporting AMRT.


  1. Was there review of the literature supporting components of the intervention? Narrative Review


  1. Were the specific procedures/components of the intervention tied to the reviewed literature? No


  1. Was the intervention based on clinically sound clinical procedures? Yes


  1. Did the author(s) provide a rationale for components of the intervention? Yes


  1. Description of outcome measures:

List the outcome measure(s). List (add additional numbers if necessary):

  • Outcome: To speak using natural prosody while producing spontaneous utterances.


  1. Was generalization addressed? Yes


  1. Was maintenance addressed? No





Description of Intervention —Arabic Melodic and Rhythmic Therapy (ARMT)


POPULATION: Aphasia; Adults

— The authors recommended that the following characteristics are associated with good progress:

  • site of lesion- anterior portion of the left hemisphere;
  • reduced expressive language with speech sound disorders;
  • intact comprehension;
  • lack anosognosia and/or auditory reception disorders;
  • no emotional lability



  • to produce short, intelligible, and informative sentences with a natural prosody,
  • to imitate sentences accurately,
  • to produce 2-3 word sentences
  • to describe pictures
  • to answer questions




STIMULI: auditory, rhythmic


DOSAGE: varies average duration of therapy was 3 to 4 months






  • There are 3 stages for this intervention which begin as nonverbal and end in multiword utterances.


  • Stage I:

— C taps rhythms that are initially rhythmic and later varied and directs P to listen.

— C continues tapping but then asks P to imitate the rhythms. First there is a relatively long latency and then P gradually reduces the latency so that the tapping is conversation-like.

— C then adds humming (2 notes high and low) to the stimuli and P is expected to imitate the humming too. This exercise evolves in chant-like vocalizations


  • Stage II:

— C develops a corpus appropriate to Tunisian Arabic melody, rhythm, and stress. Utterances range from single words to sentences with varying length and complexity. The vocabulary is appropriate to daily living in Tunisia, although the authors did develop a corpus appropriate for educated Ps.

— C produces utterances and P listens.

— C directs P to imitate the utterance, gradually increasing length and complexity of the utterances to be modeled and gradually reducing P support. The target for acceptable production is all the elements of the model with the exception of articulatory accuracy.


  • Stage III:

— C introduces a question/answer activity in which the target is the natural use of prosody in spontaneous conversation.



  • In the Introduction, the components of the intervention and its rationale are supported logically. In the discussion, the authors summarize some research about TMR and provide anecdotal information about their Ps.



  • None provided.




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