Coming Soon: Prosodic Research

August 23, 2012

Posts for Summaries on Prosodic Impairment Research will be added soon……


Coming Soon – Intervention Analyses

August 23, 2012

Posts on Intervention Analyses will be added soon……


Coming Soon – Forms

August 23, 2012

Collaboration Forms will be added soon……


Coming Soon – Assessment Analysis

August 23, 2012

Posts on Assessment Analysis will be added soon……


Levels of Evidence

August 23, 2012

Preliminary Levels of Evidence for Support of Assessment (d) and Therapy (tr)  Approaches Derived from the Center for Rehabilitation Effectiveness (2001, June), Dawes (1999a), Dollaghan (2007), and Guyatt and Rennie (2002)

Use Level*

Type of

Evidence

Description

tr A+ Randomized

Clinical Trial

(RCT)

Prospective, randomized group design with a control group and sufficient subjects to allow for a small confidence interval.
tr,

d

A+ Systematic

Review

A comprehensive, critical analysis of the literature pertaining to a specific treatment strategy. Rational for inclusion/exclusion of research is provided.   Studies limited to  RCTs and Prospective, Randomized, Groups with Controls for treatment studies and Prospective, Nonrandomized Groups with Controls are considered A+
tr A Prospective, Randomized

Group with Controls

Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental (treated) and control groups prior to treatment of the experimental groups. Outcomes before and after treatment are monitored for both groups.
tr A- Single Subject Experimental Design with Specific Client The SLP employs a single subject experimental design to determine the effectiveness of a treatment procedure with his/her client. This strategy is only used to verify effectiveness.

tr,

d

B+ Prospective, Nonrandomized Group Design with Controls Subjects are matched or assigned to treatment and control groups. Outcomes before and after treatment are monitored for both groups.
tr,

d

B+ Evidence Based

Clinical  Practice

Guidelines

Recommendations developed by a panel of experts based on clinical evidence and expertise.
tr,

d

B Systematic Reviews A comprehensive, critical analysis of the literature pertaining to a specific treatment strategy. Rational for inclusion/exclusion of research is provided.   Studies reviewed can include a variety of designs such as case studies are considered B.
tr,

d

C+ Retrospective,

Nonrandomized

Group Design with Controls

Group membership is assigned after the outcome is known. Attempt is made to determine variable(s) associated with the desired outcome.
d C+ Comparison (Cohort) Studies Clinically related research in which groups are contrasted  to one another; this is not an experiment.
tr C+ Prospective, Single Group with Pre and Post Testing Or Random Assignment to           Alternating Treatments with a Cross-Over Design

 

See Brendel & Ziegler (2008) for 2nd option
tr,

d

C Case Series A form of retrospective analysis in which a select number of consecutive cases is analyzed.
tr,

d

 

C Traditional Clinical Practice Guidelines Recommendations developed by a panel of experts based on clinical expertise and, perhaps, a review of the literature.
tr,

d

D+ Case Studies Descriptions of the outcome of treatment for an individual.
tr,

d

D Traditional/

Narrative

Review of the Literature

Expository that reviews the literature pertaining to specified treatment procedure(s). Criteria for including or excluding evidence are not provided.
  F+ Essential Research Basic research that does not answer questions related to clinical effectiveness nor provide findings that can be applied to clinical treatment issues.
  F+ Correlational Research Basic or clinically related research that is concerned with the relationship between or among variables.
  F Expert Opinion An expert writes an expository about a specific treatment procedur

d = diagnostic

tr = treatment